United States – a turning point in the debate on euthanasia took place after a public outcry in the Karen Ann Quinlan of the cases.
Karen Ann Quinlan case – Quinlan was 21 when he lost consciousness after returning from a party. He had consumed diazepam , dextropropoxyphene , and alcohol. He was hospitalized and finally sank into one. Several months later, while being kept alive on a ventilator, her parents called for an end to the acute care hospital, so that he could be allowed to die. The hospital has declined, there have been legal battles, and, finally, a court ruled in favor of his parents. Quinlan was removed from mechanical ventilation in 1976 – but continued to live in a persistent vegetative state until 1985, when he died.Surveys show that 80 percent of Britons and 64 percent of physicians are in favor of the legalization of euthanasia (). However, Parliament has not enacted legislation on this issue.
A lifestyle in which ends a doctor is given the option of not prescribing unnecessary treatments for the seriously ill patient. ‘Options for terminally ill patients or those who suffer and patients with intractable pain with a terminal or serious illness, progressive in most developed countries have several options, including:
Palliative care – the World Health Organization defines palliative care as ‘an approach that improves the quality of life of patients and their families facing problems associated with life-threatening diseases through prevention and relief of suffering through early identification and impeccable assessment and treatment of pain and others. physical, psychosocial and spiritual ‘
How can you adjust? Euthanasia can not be adequately controlled. For more information:
Written by Christian Nordqvist
The Anglican Church – in 1997, Parliament voted 234-89 not to legalize euthanasia in the United Kingdom. Members of Parliament were against all the laws of passage because of the Church of England believes that ‘assisted suicide is incompatible with Christian faith and should not be permitted by civil law.’
Companies – companies in 1935 euthanasia has emerged in England, and in 1938 the United States.
After the Second World War. – After the Second World War, Glanville Williams and Joseph Fletcher (1905-1991, U.S.
Health professionals say that his case had an impact on the world of medical practice and legal. From the Quinlan case, there are now formal ethics committees in hospitals, nursing homes and hospitals. Many say that the development of guidelines for health screening occurred as a result of his case. In 1977, California legalized living wills, with other states to follow suit soon.
These sperm were isolated, and the integrity of the DNA chain was compared with the original sperm in the semen. But there was no information on fertility or the ability of sperm to attach to the brand, the female gamete. They seem to be operating, but when they play, some information is missing.
Swiss law – assisted suicide becomes legal in Switzerland in 1937, until the doctor ends the life of the patient had nothing to gain.
The public – in almost all countries, a significantly greater %age of people for euthanasia than against it. In a democracy, legislation should reflect the popular will.
Some types of palliative care is given to about 1.2 million Americans and 45 000 new patients each year in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. About 90 percent of these patients have cancer, while other patients have heart disease, either Providers of palliative care outpatient services, hospital care, community care, day care and outpatient care.
Jurisdiction – euthanasia is voluntary only if the patient is mentally competent – has a clear understanding of available options and consequences. Determine or define the jurisdiction is not easy.
Australia – Human Rights Act in the terminal phase was adopted in 1996 in the Northern Territory. The law on four patients died with a device designed to euthanasia by Dr Philip Nitschke. A year later, the law was overturned by the Federal Parliament. In 2009, a quadriplegic patient, Christian Rossiter has been granted the right to refuse food and Let Die, the Chief Justice Wayne Martin said Brightwater, his companion, is not criminally responsible to follow his instructions. A chest infection finally ended the life Rossiter.
Terri Schiavo’s feeding tube was removed April 24, 2001, and replaced a few days after the legal decisions were made. This attracted the attention of the media and, subsequently, that of politicians and pressure groups, mainly pro-life and disability rights groups. The members of the Legislature of Florida, U. S. Congress and even President of the United States began to talk about it. This movement transformed the case into a national issue for most months.
One way to end life when the intent is to cause the death of the patient in a single act . ‘
The Schiavo case was the 14 calls, several motions, petitions and hearings in the courts of Florida, five suits in federal court, the Florida law was invalidated by the Supreme Court of Florida, a subpoena by a congressional committee in qualify for witness protection Schiavo, and a few other legal proceedings. Finally, the decision of the local court to disconnect life support for Terri Schiavo was given after March 18, 2005 – Schiavo died March 31.
According to the Ministry of Health, United Kingdom, no one can give consent on behalf of an adult incompetent, such as those in A. However, doctors consider the patient’s interest when deciding treatment options. Best interest of the patient are based on:
What the patient wanted to when he / she was competent
An example in the UK – your doctor can decide the best solution for a patient is declared clinically brain dead is to move the machinery equipment life without the patient will die. The doctor in charge will talk to the patient’s family. However, the final decision is the doctor, and strict criteria must be met.
Quality of life – the patient is really aware of what it means to experience insoluble suffering, even with painkillers. Those who have not had the experience can not fully appreciate the effect it has on the quality of life. In addition to physical pain than emotional pain of losing their independence is another factor that only the patient understands.
Euthanasia, also known as assisted suicide, assisted suicide , physician-assisted death and euthanasia more generally called, basically means to act with the explicit intention to deliberately end a life to relieve intractable suffering. Some interpret it as the practice of euthanasia to end a life in a painless procedure. Many disagree with this interpretation, because it needs to include a reference to the suffering refractory.
New York 1828 – an anti-euthanasia law was passed in the State of New York in 1828. He is the first known anti-euthanasia law in the United States. In the following years many other localities and states followed suit with similar laws. Lawyers, including physicians promoted euthanasia after the Civil War.
Their families – helps reduce pain and suffering of the relatives of the patient.
Since the beginning of 1800 – beginning of year 1800 has been the subject of euthanasia debate and activism in the United States, Canada, Western Europe and Australasia. Ezekiel Emanuel , one of the U. S.
The involuntary euthanasia – euthanasia is carried out without consent. The decision was taken by another person because the patient is unable to make him / her. There are two classifications of euthanasia procedure:
Passive euthanasia – this is when life-sustaining treatments are withheld. The definition of passive euthanasia is often unclear. Many argue that the term is wrong, because euthanasia has not taken place because there is no intention to take life.
A goal of palliative care for patients and families to accept death as a normal process. It aims to provide relief of pain and uncomfortable symptoms, but with elements of psychological and spiritual care to patients. Palliative care strives to provide a support system to help patients to live their remaining time as actively as possible and to help families and deprive the face of the illness of a loved one.
Slippery slope – there is a chance things will start to those who are terminally ill and want to die because of refractory pain, and eventally start to include more patients.
Advance directives in the various states to get what they want if they become too sick to be able to refuse or accept medical treatment. Euthanasia in the history of medicine The word ‘euthanasia’ comes from the Greek word for the EU ‘good’ and thanatos Greek word meaning ‘death.’
Hippocrates – euthanasia is mentioned in the Hippocratic Oath. The original oath ‘To please no one to prescribe lethal drugs nor give advice which may cause his death.’ Even so, the Greeks and Romans were not strong advocates for the preservation of life at all costs, and were tolerant of suicide when no help can be offered to the dying.
The Suicide Act 1961 makes it illegal to ‘aid, an accomplice, counsel or procure the suicide of another’ and establishes a maximum penalty of 14 years imprisonment. Doctors in Britain often help patients with their wishes, refusing treatment and pain relief when death is a couple of days and after consulting patients, parents and other caregivers.
The patient can recover – the patient can recover against all odds. The diagnosis may be wrong.
We do that – if an animal has enjoyed overwhelming suffering, we put it down. And ‘as an act of kindness. Why should he be denied the goodness of human beings?
Refusing treatment – United States, UK and many other countries, a patient may refuse treatment that is recommended by a physician or other health professional, as they were adequately informed and I’m sure the mind. In the UK, the Mental Health Act 1983 excludes children and people under the age of 18 years.
Thomas More – an English jurist, scholar, writer and statesman, also recognized as a saint of the Catholic Church, once considered a utopian community that would facilitate the death of those whose lives have become heavy after torturing and persistent pain.
Guilt – there is a risk that patients may feel a burden on resources and are psychologically driven to do. It can be assumed that the burden – financially, emotionally, mentally – and their families is overwhelming. Although the costs of treatment are provided by the State, there is a risk hospital staff can have an economic incentive to favor euthanasia consent.
United Kingdom – Euthanasia is illegal throughout the United Kingdom . However, since the matter is now in the Scottish Parliament in Scotland, it is possible that different laws may eventually apply for the future in the United Kingdom.
The Voluntary Euthanasia Society, UK was founded by Dr. The company has created a guide for self liberation, which included guidelines on how a person can end his / life. In 1980, the Company Voluntary euthanasia of Scotland separated from the original, and has published How to die with dignity. Voluntary euthanasia society of Scotland has called on the United Kingdom to amend the law so that terminally ill patients may be able to end their life.
Terri Schiavo case – a seven-year long legal case that if Terri Schiavo was a patient diagnosed as in a persistent vegetative state for many years, could be disconnected from life. In 1993, Michael Schiavo, husband and guardian, has asked the staff to nursing home for Do Not Resuscitate – but staff convinced him to withdraw the order. In 1998, Michael asked the Sixth Circuit Court of Florida to withdraw the feeding tube in Florida Statutes Section 765 401 . However, Robert and Mary Schindler claimed that he was aware of and opposed to the petition. Michael finally transferred his authority on the issue in court. The court concluded that the patient does not want to continue life-prolonging measures
Derek Humphry , a British citizen of American journalist founded the Hemlock Society in Santa Monica, California. At the time, was the only group in the United States to provide information to the terminally ill, if they wanted to hasten death. The company has also campaigned and contributed financially to the readers to change the legislation.
Quinlan case paved the way for the legal protection of voluntary passive euthanasia.
Europe – The Netherlands decriminalized doctor-assisted suicide, in 2002 some restrictions were relaxed. In 2002, assisted suicide was approved in Belgium.
In most countries euthanasia or assisted suicide is against the law. According to the National Health Service , United Kingdom, it is illegal to help someone commit suicide, regardless of circumstances. Assisted suicide or voluntary euthanasia involves a maximum penalty of 14 years in prison in the United Kingdom.S. law varies in some states .
Human – is more humane to allow a person with pain refractory to choose to end this suffering.
In medicine, the lengthening of life can sometimes become an extension of the die. In a nutshell – because the patient is forced to live a slow death? The arguments against voluntary euthanasia:
The role of the doctor – doctors and other health professionals may have compromised their roles. The oath of Hippocrates, in his old said: ‘Please do not go because I prescribe a deadly drug nor give advice which may cause his death.’
English common law – the suicide was a criminal act from 1300 until the middle of last century, which included assisting others to end their life.
Dignity – each individual must be able to die with dignity.
Judgement 1957 – Judge Devlin ruled in 1957 in Dr.
John Bodkin Adams, causing death by administering lethal drugs to a patient, if the intention was simply to relieve pain, is not considered murder, death, even if result is a potential or probable.