The more detailed annotation of the genome of the fruit fly opens the door to understanding the genomes of all organisms

The modENCODE transcriptome and chromatin groups, working with other groups that focus on regulatory elements, small RNAs, and DNA replication, resulting in Karpen calls ‘revolutionary comprehensive analysis, which greatly increases the information about the Drosophila genome available to researchers and provides a basis for functional studies in depth. ‘Since the genomes of model organisms such as Drosophila and the worm, Celnik said: ‘We want to crack the code and genomics to discover the rules for the reading of a genome genome -. Any Given that the gene expression control signals in the fly fruit and nematodes, including how chromatin influences gene expression, will be applicable to understanding how to read the human genome. ‘

Like all eukaryotes Drosophila genome is divided into euchromatin, which contains many active genes, and heterochromatin, which – even if this amounts to about one third of the genome – contains relatively few active genes . Thus, the Drosophila chromatin group was surprised to find that some regions of heterochromatin are almost as active as in euchromatin expression.

‘The development of Drosophila melanogaster transcriptome,’ by members of the transcriptome, and ‘Comprehensive analysis of chromatin landscape in Drosophila melanogaster,’ by the group of chromatin, is now in the advanced online publication of Nature.

But DNA is surprisingly versatile – coding sequences, called exons, are mixed together in different ways to produce more than one form of protein. The researchers found nearly 53,000 new or modified exons and splice junctions again close to 23,000, with 14,000 other ways of transcribing the genetic information. Despite the surveillance to which the Drosophila genome has been submitted, the researchers found new or altered exons or splice forms in almost three-quarters of the genes previously annotated in Drosophila.

The search results modENCODE go to a central database accessible to the public. Karpen said: ‘This information is available to any scientist to use to design and conduct his experiments can use our data to interrogate their favorite genes or the entire genome and ‘creativity and ingenuity from them . that progress in understanding of the flow of information in the sequence of cellular and organismal functions will be done. ‘

By identifying the combinatorial patterns of 18 different histone modifications, and analyzing their associations with gene expression and other functions, the group has developed a model of chromatin states working together, and how they vary among different cell lines. Their model identified novel chromatin signatures associated with the regulation of gene expression and other functions, as well as several previously identified genes and promoters.

‘Identification of functional elements and control circuitry in the Drosophila modENCODE,’ by the Drosophila modENCODE Consortium, appears in the December 24, 2010, issue of Science and is now online. Transcriptome Group Consortium, led by Berkeley Lab’s Susan Celnik includes research teams led by Brenton Graveley, University of Connecticut Health Center, Indiana University in Bloomington Cherbi Peter, Tom Gingeras of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Norbert Perrimon of Harvard Medical School, Michael Brent of Washington University in St. Louis, and Steven Brenner of the University of California at Berkeley.

Group was able to explore transcriptome Celnik RNA in Drosophila to a level never reached before. They had already lost because they are less well preserved, or were found in less studied stages of development and the populations of RNA . Thus, they tend to be expressed at levels lower than those of known genes. ‘He adds:’ We also found an order of magnitude increase in the way that genes are spliced ​​and edited to produce alternative forms of protein notes, which significantly increases the complexity of the proteome. ‘ The proteome is the set of proteins expressed by the genome.

Karpen Group studies of chromatin, the combination of DNA and proteins that organize the genome into the chromosomes of an organism. In chromatin, DNA is wrapped around structures called nucleosomes made of histone proteins. Other proteins in chromatin also affect its organization and functioning. Karpen said the group’s goal ‘is to define the distribution of chemical modifications of chromatin proteins and how it can change their function.’ They produced the first complete picture of how patterns of chromatin components are associated with chromosome functions including transcription of active genes. These mechanisms are called ‘epigenetic’ because their influence on genome function is coded by the associated proteins and DNA sequence

Susan and Gary Karpen Celnik of the Division of Life Sciences at the U. S. They are among the main co-authors of the report of the Consortium on Drosophila functional elements and the integration of control circuits, led by Manolis Kellis of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, appeared in the Dec. 24 Science online. Apart from the groups led by Celnik and Karpen appears in the journal Nature in January and are now available online, and wiser than their groups will soon appear in an issue of Genome Research devoted to modENCODE studies.

Research groups carried out their studies on four different types of cells in Drosophila cell cultures maintained in the laboratory, not all of which had been widely explored. Further studies with whole animals have been conducted, particularly in the detection of changes in the development, from embryos to fly through the larvae and pupae to adult males and females.

ModENCODE project Celnik said: ‘. The goal is not only to map all the bases in the genome, but to discover the function of each base,’ adds Karpen, ‘the function begins with the discovery of the mapping of all the components that affect on it. ‘

Cool the person rapidly, by any means possible. For example, soak in a bath of cold water, place them in a cool shower, spray them with cold water from a garden hose or, if the humidity is low, wrap them in a cool, wet sheet and fan vigorously.

Over the past decade, researchers have made incredible progress in genome sequencing rapidly and accurately in all areas of life. However, the list of pairs of chemical bases obtained far from understanding how the information they contain becomes functional.

Even better understand the mysteries hidden genomes.