NIH science of hearing loss in pre-term infants, people with autoimmune diseases awarded to the International Research Meeting in Baltimore

Almost all of us cringe at the thought of fingernails on a blackboard, but people with hyperacusis experience discomfort sensitive to sounds too normal. For them, some sounds seem too loud, even if they are at acceptable levels for all. Some can even go without their hearing aids to avoid pain or discomfort that amplified sound can bring. NIDCD-funded researchers at the University of Alabama, University of Maryland, and other tests as a sound therapy can help people with hyperacusis to tolerate louder sounds. In previous studies, they found that people with tinnitus who received sound therapy – to wear a noise generator in every ear that plays a sweet squeaking noise, like the inside of a shell, more advice – have been able to tolerate noise levels louder than before treatment. Some advice received and noise generators, some cards have received a placebo with noise generators, noise generators received some free advice, and some received placebo noise generators, without advice. They found that individuals were much more likely to increase their tolerance to noise levels louder when using the full course – noise generators, more advice. The next phase of the research is to evaluate a noise generator in combination with a hearing aid to see if they can improve the performance of hearing instrument users, improving their tolerance to amplified sound.The Genes and Deafness talk will be held Saturday, February 19th at 8:40 in the Harborside Ballroom AC. In autoimmune hearing loss related to inflammation may not be the culprit

People who have an autoimmune disease – or how – also often experience loss of hearing, and the conventional wisdom is that this is due to inflammation of the inner ear. As a result, most doctors usually prescribe glucocorticoids, a family of steroids that facilitate inflammation and improve hearing, but can have serious side effects if taken too long. NIDCD-funded researchers at Oregon Health & Science University see things differently. Their research shows that, although glucocorticoids may help improve your hearing, do not appear to affect inflammation, which is not present in autoimmune mouse models with hearing loss. On the contrary, they seem to correct an imbalance of ions in the inner ear fluid, which is the most likely source of hearing loss. In this study, the researchers studied the gene expression in autoimmune mice with hearing loss and found that 22 of the 24 genes that regulate the concentration of ions in the inner ear has been turned off. The genes that regulate the inflammatory response were also not activated, which is the opposite of what you expect to find if the inflammation have been implicated. When the mice were treated with glucocorticoids, the expression of several genes that regulate ion increased significantly, while there was no effect on inflammation. What is happening, the researchers suggest, is that glucocorticoid molecules attached themselves to the receptors for another group of steroids, called mineralocorticoids, whose job is to maintain the appropriate ionic balance of the inner ear.

New way of thinking can help us find more effective treatments with fewer side effects

Selective loss of the principal sensory cells is a possible sign of auditory neuropathy

Head and neck cancers account for about 3-5 % of all cancers in the United States, according to the National Cancer Institute, with a small %age of tumors that occur in the salivary glands.

And ‘well known that children born prematurely have an increased risk of hearing loss, but what was clear at this point is why. NIDCD-funded researchers at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard University and the Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil, tried to find the answer by a post-mortem examination of the temporal bone – the portion of the skull that houses the inner ear – 50 babies in the neonatal intensive care unit of a hospital in San Jose, Costa Rica. In contrast, in 23 neonates admitted to an end, an ear of 46 ears showed this selective loss of inner hair cells. The results are surprising, because the outer hair cells are very delicate and hearing loss in people is important due to a malfunction, damage, and death of these sensory cells, compared to the inner hair cells, which are much more resistant to damage. When the inner hair cells are destroyed, not hearing the signal reaching the brain, although the outer hair cells continue to function normally. This condition is known as auditory. The results help explain why other researchers have observed a higher incidence of auditory neuropathy in premature and suggest that the pathology underlying auditory neuropathy is not just because of the loss of neurons, as its name suggests, but the loss of sensory cells of ‘ inner ear that drive them.

The poster The development of combination therapy for noise-induced hearing loss will be held Monday, February 21 at 1:00 in the Grand Ballroom.

The selective loss of inner hair cells in premature babies posters will be held Sunday, February 20th at 13:00 in the Grand Ballroom.

The poster Cochlear mechanisms of ion homeostasis are removed autoimmune inner ear diseases and restored by treatment with glucocorticoids will be held Sunday, February 20th at 13:00 in the Grand Ballroom.

In this conference, the Presidential Symposium, the director James F. NIDCD Battey, Jr., MD, Ph.D., offers real-time view of where we are in the study of genes and hearing loss. He will share how advances in genome science have greatly improved our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern the way in which to listen and discuss how two new resources – Knockout Mouse Phenotyping Program and Genome-Wide Association Studies – special promise in the coming years. KOMP2, an international effort to study the characteristics of mice after a gene has been inactivated, it will generate hundreds of new mouse models to study hearing loss. GWAS, a system to rapidly scan the genomes of people for variations that might be associated with the disease, will be an opportunity to identify the genes responsible for diseases other communication genetically more complex, like, disorder and specific language-related hearing loss age, or presbycusis.

The combination treatments – the use of two or more drugs in combination to treat a disease – is an effective way to treat these complex diseases such as HIV / AIDS. Now some researchers are wondering if it could be effective in the treatment of disorders caused by hearing loss as well. Causes of hearing loss involve a complex series of cellular and molecular mechanisms. Some of these routes are already targeted drugs approved by the FDA for the treatment of other diseases. Researchers at Washington University in St. Louis wondered, 1), if approved by the FDA that affect the common signaling pathways may be effective to prevent or cure this disease, and 2) if so, you can reduce the dosage – and then reduce their side effects – the combination of two drugs that act on different signaling pathways? Previous studies have shown that synthetic steroids, called corticosteroids can prevent this disease, and this team has recently found that anticonvulsants can prevent this disease permanently in mice. In this study, they studied four drugs for hearing loss, two of the family of anticonvulsant drugs and two of the family of synthetic steroids. The researchers gave different doses of each drug using mouse or two hours before exposure to loud noise or 24 hours after exposure. After the effective dose range was determined for each drug, they applied a mathematical simulation to merge two families of drugs, and found that certain combinations were indeed effective in protecting against permanent hearing loss at lower doses. I am currently a patent on this discovery. The researchers next step is to examine the effects of the combination of drugs on animals that have a large audience that is more similar to humans.

They also plan to test the drug on pairs of extremely loud noise, similar to what the troops are facing on the battlefield in Afghanistan