Highlights of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine 52nd Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, PA, 18-22 July, 2010

L ”intensity-modulated Radiation Therapy for the para-sinus Malignancies: Results of the Fox Chase Cancer Center ‘ presentation will be at 15:00 on Sunday, July 18 in the exhibition hall of’ Philadelphia.Fourkal Eugene and his colleagues at Fox Chase Cancer Center in Philadelphia are conducting computer simulation studies with bunches – by varying the concentration and relative spacing of the protons in the cluster – in an effort to see what works best. A concrete measure of success is to determine the biological effectiveness or RBE, the dimensionless number showing the effectiveness of the particle beam to kill cancer cells as compared to photons for the same level of in terms of physical dose of ‘Grey’ .

The system could help the drug discovery and treatment of disease. For example, the setting of some biomarkers phosphors that help researchers to better visualize the distribution and effectiveness of new anti-cancer drugs, says Carpenter.

‘We have seen some changes, but nothing catastrophic or implying that we are going in the wrong direction with this treatment,’ says co-author Brian Kavanagh, professor of oncology at the University of Colorado at Denver School of Medicine. ‘The first impression is very reassuring.’

The presentation ‘Reducing the dose of images without sacrificing the precision target location: a feasibility study Byline Ruan D’ Ruan Keall P and Q will be 10:24 Tuesday, July 20 in room 204B Pennsylvania Convention Center.

The presentation ‘The image of the lung Database Consortium and the image database resource Initiative : a public database of CT Done for the analysis of pulmonary nodules’ by S Armato et al. will be at 8:30 Wednesday, July 21, Room 201B Center of Philadelphia.

The next step, Gagne said, is to move the mouse for imaging human tumors with the device. What he does now with collaborators at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital and Cooper University Hospital.

The presentation ‘Temporal dose-response of normal lung tissue in patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy for cancers of the lung’ of kavanah B et al. will be at 1:30 Monday, July 19 Pennsylvania Convention Center Room 204B.

Image-guided radiation therapy targets cancers in organs that tend to move during treatment, such as prostate or lung cancer and close to vital organs. Often, the inert markers are implanted in the body to help oncologists identify tumor tissue.

A group of researchers wants to write these markers to provide drugs that fight and make the tumor more sensitive to radiation. Medications can be adapted to different types of tumors, researchers say.

Light travels in a waveguide is not normally transparent to flee because of the principle of total internal reflection if the refractive index of the guide is more than the surrounding material, a ray of light approaches the wall of the guide will be returned in the guide. However, if the guide is deformed because of an object compresses the waveguide and the light can not escape it. Imager to capture the light and the image the mechanical properties of the objects can be determined.

Each can be modulated in intensity in order to get sharp images with the lowest amount of radiation. A source is active at a time, and can be modulated in a location that offers the desired intensity of a dosage form. It ‘s like a CT scanner for each individual patient.

But the clinical results are encouraging for a new collaborative study of 31 patients treated with IMRT at Fox Chase Cancer Center in Philadelphia. Fox Chase observations lead researcher Aruna turk, MD: ‘Our results show that there was no loss of vision or vision problems, such as floats, and preserve the vision is always the main concern.’

The challenge is to design a system that will work for an extended period of time and the target tumor without damaging healthy tissue. The team has already developed a nanoscale coating of polymers containing anticancer drugs for the gold markers, which are commonly used markers.

The team also found that very low concentrations of nano-phosphors produce high-contrast images. ‘We determined that the minimum detectable level is much lower than conventional better contrast X-ray imaging, for the same dose, which means that tumors can be detected at the earliest, most curable stage,’ said l ‘ lead author Colin Carpenter, a Stanford postdoctoral fellow.

GE sources for beam energy of 60 kW. The images are sharper than usual because the conical X-ray beams are narrower than conventional CT machines and produce less scattered X-rays. This eliminates the need for screens to block the scattered X-rays , which allows cells to detect even more to be placed in the detector system of inverse geometry CT is about one-fifth of size used in conventional CT units. Greater surface area also means the possibility of small cells and increased spatial resolution

GOLDEN BALLS nanocoating help destroy tumors, radiation therapy improve

‘However, in my mind, the most interesting application of this system is a device to assist surgeons in the complete removal of diseased tissue,’ he adds. ‘Right now, it is very difficult to remove all the cells in the tumor tissue, because the surgeons did not have a tool that is sensitive enough. Allowing real-time visualization of tumor cells could significantly improve the treatment.’

The ‘Design and evaluation of an optical imaging device for detecting cancer Touch’ presentation of C. Won et al. Will be at 15:00 on Sunday, July 18 in the exhibition hall of the Philadelphia Center.

The website through which you can access the database is http://ncia.nci.nih.gov

‘The X-ray and multi-source IGCT represents a radical departure from conventional CT,’ said Frutschy. ‘Our results show that we can build such a system, and it is possible to provide a high-power X-ray tube with multi-source 60kW of instantaneous power measured.’

With a median follow-up of 27 months, 2 – and 5-year survival rates were as high as 89 percent in the early stages, and decreased with time to 66 percent at 5 years. Some patients had recurrent or residual, but on the whole, Dr. Turk said: ‘IMRT seems to be a promising method of treatment and well tolerated.’

The logic of the project, according to Armato, was to help developers of automated detection systems, often referred to as CAD , providing a ‘standard of truth’ to compare their methods. All images contained in the database Clinical computed tomography that have been read manually by a team of four chest radiologists, working in two phases. In the first phase, each radiologist independently of the others in the second stage, we looked at each other face to obtain a more complete reading of each scan.

Now there’s more. Researchers at the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas, have developed a system that offers two nanocapsules targeted cancer treatments at the same time: doxorubicin, a chemotherapy agent, and heat therapy .

This research was funded by the National Cancer Institute and the AAPM Seed funding initiative.

Hee Won Chang and his colleagues at Temple University have made a new tumor imaging device touch, taking advantage of the optical waveguides – probes that are flat, flexible and transparent.

The imaging system based on hybrid nanoscale phosphors X-ray/optical – imaging markers that convert X-ray energy to light. The markers are oxysulfide Gadolinium and terbium, or covered or europium .

‘Until now, these markers are only passive implants that are inserted into the tumor, ‘said Srinivas Sridhar, a professor of physics at Northeastern University and director of Electronic Materials, University Research Institute.’ We are making active use of intelligent nanotechnology, ‘he said.

‘In estimating the bag,’ he says, ‘people try to predict how actions will behave based on historical data and portfolio of the company.’ The mathematical model that uses data on how the movement has changed the tumor during a course of radiotherapy, as well as real-time images of a tumor to calculate how much confidence can have on physcists a position of instantaneous estimates of the tumor. The purpose of this work is to reduce the number of times intrafraction X-rays should be activated as the measure of the location of the tumor, thereby reducing the total amount of radiation a patient receives.

‘Laser acceleration of protons in a cluster are coming,’ said Fourkal, ‘and if their concentration is high enough , the effects of interference of protons across the tumor can lead to more power to stop the cluster and an RBE greater. ‘

The presentation ‘Distributed X-ray Source Development’ by Frutschy K et al. Will be at 1:30 Monday, July 19 in room 201B of the Philadelphia Convention Center.

The group includes employees Makrigiorgos Mike Cormack and Robert Brigham & Women Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute.

Higher levels of vitamin D were associated with a slightly lower risk of fecal incontinence, but the relationship was not significant, the researchers say may be due to the low number of reported cases of fecal incontinence.

The ‘assembled nanoparticles for targeted delivery Drug Release Capsules Controlled and hyperthermia’ presentation by McGary J et al. Will be at 15:00 on Sunday, July 18 in the exhibition hall of the Philadelphia Center.

Now researchers report that they can calibrate the dosage of drugs and release rates in laboratory tests for up to three months. The morphology of nanoporous polymer coatings have allowed the controlled release of molecules and nanoparticles. The results also help refine models of the team of the kinetics of drug release.

In six years the study of lung cancer patients treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy found some people experienced significant side effects of long-term relatively new technique.

A database of over a thousand lung scan, the culmination of nine years of effort by seven universities and eight companies of medical imaging, has been completed and is now available to investigators of medical imaging. The project will be presented by Samuel G. Armato III, Ph., associate professor of radiology at the University of Chicago in 2010 at the annual meeting of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine, July 18-22, Philadelphia, PA.

Pratx was able to detect the crystals inside the cylinder 6 inches in gelatin that have X-ray and optical properties similar to human tissue and cells of cervical cancer in a petri dish.

In the future, the development team plans to develop an experimental sources 8-32, which will allow large samples to be acquired.

The central nervous system have been tested in the laboratory to study the issue and the rate of warming. Future studies will test cell cultures and animal studies, said Dr. McGary.

Using an algorithm for classifying areas based on these three parameters, it was found that most of the tumors contained three statistically different subpopulations with distinct profiles. He suspects that this classification in different sub-regions of tumors can be generalized to many types of cancer.

Dr. Andrew Kuhls-Gilcrist University of Buffalo said that the next generation of devices SSXII a tract of land to allow higher ROI imaging. ‘Seeing the images taken with the new SSXII is like watching high-definition television for the first time,’ said Kuhls Gilcrist. Using a modular expandable, field of view can be extended to larger potential for imaging of whole organs. planning further improvements are expected in even greater performance, including finer spatial resolution and improved triple dose response at high spatial frequencies. Work is underway in the laboratory of Dr. Stephen Rudin imaging to promote the development of this promising new technology and bring it to the clinic, where he plans to make substantial improvements in the results of patient treatment

According to GE researcher Kris Frutschy, multi-source technology is at the research stage and not yet commercially available. In addition, the reconstruction software is necessarily more sophisticated multi-source, because the data from all sources must be calibrated and combined.

‘These first signs give us the ability to anticipate potential problems and to personalize treatment,’ says co-author Mu’ayyad Miften, professor of oncology at UC Denver.

Globus tumors in mice, ‘explains won.’ Sophisticated machines, such as magnetic resonance measuring the size and depth with greater accuracy, but the information is not available with a flexible magnetic resonance imaging. Conversely, methods such as elasticity sonoelastography provide information, but is much more complex machine. ‘

The system is based on nanoparticles assembled capsules , structures that are formed because of their chemical properties. The capsules contain doxorubicin, a chemotherapeutic agent. An external magnetic field increased doxorubicin free nanocapsules and warms even the NAC solution, heating the tumor cells to over 50 ° C to kill them.

Therapies for cancer today to deliver a uniform amount of radiation to the tumor as a whole. But the tumors are not uniform around the world, and new research suggests that these treatments could be made more effective targeting different regions of the tumor with different doses.

In traditional image intensifiers to X-rays , developed in 1950, X-rays, after passing through the body of a patient, have been converted into secondary electrons that were accelerated by high voltage vacuum tubes cumbersome. The electrons, in turn, were converted into light, which was eventually recorded by a camera. This method was used to obtain an image intensification and distorts the image. Although still in use, XII began to be replaced in 1990 by the imager plate, which turned out to have problems of their own, such as limited spatial resolution and poor quality with low exposure to X-ray

A potential target to increase the dose, said Jeraj is 20 % of cancer cells that show a high hypoxia, a low metabolic rate, and low proliferation. Candidates for a lower dose are 30 % of the cells that show a high proliferation but low and intermediate metabolism of hypoxia.

The researchers are now beginning to test the toxicity and efficacy of these crystals in the mouse.

The intensity-modulated radiation therapy seems to be a safe and effective treatment for tumors in the region of the nose, known as cancer of the sinuses, the new data suggest. This is an advantage for patients with cancer that is difficult to treat because of its proximity to the optic nerve and the interactions of air and tissues that can affect the accuracy of radiation delivery. Both offer the potential to cause blindness.

Their technique, called X-ray luminescence CT, small lesions could see the tumor with less radiation dose than current technologies used to image biological processes in the body – such as PET / CT.

Understanding how the normal lung tissue is affected by the intense radiation will help doctors to avoid excessive damage to healthy tissue and more aggressive treatment of tumors, said Kavanagh.

SBRT hits tumors with high doses of radiation , usually 3-5 treatments. The researchers evaluated changes in lung density in 63 persons who received SBRT between 2003 and 2009. After six months, patients had transient increases in density up to 100 % compared to their pre-treatment density of the lung.

A large study of molecular imaging to guide the group of Robert Jeraj at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, has shown that many tumors contain three different subpopulations of cells.

The presentation ‘X-ray tomography X-ray Luminescence via selective excitation’ from Pratx G et al. will be at 16:00 Monday, July 19 in Room 204C of the Philadelphia Center.

The 52 nd Meeting of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine is meeting from July18 – 22, 2010 in Philadelphia, PA.

Jeraj said that future studies are needed to determine which of these regions are more or less resistant to simple treatment, and new tools must be developed to measure how changes in size compared to the tumor region as a whole.

‘There are some areas that they are taking over a tumor, and others are outsourcing,’ says Jeraj. ‘The idea is to paint the dose is to treat each region properly.’

The nanoparticles are tiny pieces of metal and other spark much enthusiasm in the world of cancer research, because the particles can be targeted to a tumor and therefore need lower doses to be effective. This translates into fewer side effects for patients.

In recent years, nanoparticles have shown promise for the detection and imaging of tumors. At the School of Medicine at Stanford University in California, an interdisciplinary group of researchers has developed a range of nanocrystals of work with X-rays to illuminate tumor cells with a red glow.

Jeraj hopes to develop future therapies that until the dose of radiation because the cells resistant and sensitive cells reduced the dose of radiation.

Small-scale human trials will be conducted within this year. Won said that this device has potential for use in screening if it is successful.

Nanocrystals created by William Pratx and his colleagues produce light when exposed to infrared rays XI researchers hope to coat the crystals with polymers and proteins that allow them to circulate through the body and bind to cancer cells. Cancellation of a CT scanner could then enlighten them, and that light – usually harmless to the human body – would be detected by a simple CCD camera.

The researchers also found that some patients had subtle changes in normal tissues appeared to signal that further development of side effects such as inflammation.

The ‘kinetics of release of radio-sensitizing gold fiducials nanoporous coatings: in situ biological dose IGRT painting’ Presentation of C. Stambaugh et al. Will be 16:12 Wednesday, July 21, Pennsylvania Convention Center Room 204B.

‘If the light is not out of the subject, if the fabric is deep, you could go with an endoscope to detect,’ said Pratx. ‘It could be used for imaging of the prostate.’

Lab tests, the hybrid system showed a difference in contrast between 260 % of normal and tumor tissues simulated, the researchers report. An x-ray showed a difference of 0.6 per cent against.

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Highlights of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine 52nd Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, PA, 18-22 July, 2010